Region: Oltenia (Romania)
Oltenia is a historical province and geographical region of Romania. It is situated between the Danube, the Southern Carpathians and the Olt river.
Initially inhabited by Dacians, Oltenia was incorporated in the Roman Empire (106, at the end of the Dacian Wars; see Roman Dacia). In 129, during Hadrian’s rule, it formed Dacia Inferior, one of the two divisions of the province (together with Dacia Superior, in today’s Transylvania); Marcus Aurelius’ administrative reform made Oltenia one of the three new divisions (tres Daciae) as Dacia Malvensis, its capital and chief city being named Romula. It was colonized with veterans of the Roman legions. The Romans withdrew their administration south of the Danube at the end of the 3rd century and Oltenia was ruled by the foederati Germanic Goths. In the late 4th century Oltenia came under the rule of the Taifals before invasion by the Huns.
In 1233, the Kingdom of Hungary formed the Banat of Severin in the eastern part of the region that would persist until the 1526 Battle of Mohács.
Around 1247 a polity emerged in Oltenia under the rule of Litovoi. The rise of the mediaeval state of Wallachia followed in the 14th century, and the voivode (Prince of Wallachia) was represented in Oltenia by a ban – “the Great Ban of Craiova” (with seat in Craiova after it was moved from Strehaia). This came to be considered the greatest office in Wallachian hierarchy, and one that was held most by members of the Craiovești family, from the late 15th century to about 1550. The title would continue to exist up until 1831.
During the 15th century, Wallachia had to accept the Ottoman suzerainty and to pay an annual tribute to keep its autonomy as vasal. From the Craioveşti-family, many bans cooperated with the Turks. However, many rulers, including the Oltenian-born Michael the Brave, fought against the Ottomans, giving Wallachia brief periods of independence.
Oltenia entirely includes the counties: Gorj , Dolj, Mehedinţi , Vâlcea , Olt.
Nowadays, Oltenia’s main city and its seat for a long period of the late Middle Ages is Craiova. The first medieval seat of Oltenia was Turnu Severin of Banat of Severin, the ancient Drobeta, near the former Roman bridge, built by Apollodorus of Damascus for Emperor Trajan conquest purposes.
Population, The major cities
Oltenia Region has a population of 2,317,636 inhabitants, with a density below the national average (79.3 inhabitants / km2 to 90.9 inhabitants / km2). The structure of rural-urban population is 52.8% to 47.2%. Localities network established in 40 cities, including 11 with class municipalities and 408 rural communes. The major cities are Craiova (302,622 inhabitants), Ramnicu_Valcea (111,980 inhabitants), Drobeta-Turnu_Severin (population 104,065), Targu_Jiu (96,562 inhabitants) and Slatina (population 79,171).
Transport / mobility / logistics
Freight distribution is becoming more and more important in modern life. Customers expected a wide and growing variety of the services in the local area e.g. shopping and leisure facilities and recreational areas. Most of these functions need some sort of the goods distribution in order to provide the necessary services for the customers.
Some areas are more sensitive than others to heavy goods distribution e.g. pedestrian areas or older parts of the city. To keep a steady supply of goods to the commercial operators and keep the areas attractive and at the same time to minimize the environmental effect of goods distribution in this area new solution are to be developed.
Preserving quality of life in a city can be one of the reasons to implement access restriction. In the city center goods transport is often the reason for severe congestion. The goods vehicles are typically slow moving due to several stops along a delivery route. At the same time goods distribution deliveries in the city center often take place in confined streets, which adds to the problem.
Big industrial and commercial companies have own system for goods distribution uncorrelated at a central (urban) level. This kind of policy exists in Craiova at a low scale, and doesn’t take into consideration the free air pollution. It is about the freight distribution cars entering into Craiova fair and fruits and vegetables markets, which have access only 2 hours in the morning and 2 hours in the night to not disturb the commercial activity. There are a couple of challenges, problems, with freight distribution in the Region, some of them are enumerated bellow:
– Supply / Demand Relationships – freight distribution is within a paradigm shift between “manufacture-to-supply” or inventory-based logistics (push logistics) to “manufacture-to-order” or replenishment-based logistics (pull logistics). This relationship is not fully understood in the region and it creates a gap in the supply/demand relationship and it creates problems within the freight distribution schemes and within the region economy.
– Functional Integration – The efficiency of freight distribution is linked with the level of functional integration along supply chains. In Oltenia region a fully functional supply chain is not implemented and now the freight distribution is mainly done directly from the source for the most economical players. The main problem is that moving freight from one part the other involved additional costs and delays, either administrative or physical in nature.
– Distribution Center – Distribution centers have become the fundamental link between production and consumption. From their conventional role as a warehouse close to final markets, DCs have evolved to provide an interface between the industrial and retail geographies of the supply chain they are involved with. In the region the lack of distribution centers is felt by the business in cost, travel time, etc. and creates congestions in cities and because of this pollution is increased in the region.